Ardakan city is one of the cities of Yazd province in the center of Iran. Ardakan is the center of this city. The city’s population in 2006 was 73.292. The city of Ardakan has 32% of the Yazd province (more than 24,000 square kilometers) and is the widest city in Yazd province. The city is located in the historic city of Zardak, with its historic walls still standing. The city has three central parts, the Kharandag section and the Aqda district. The history of the dialogue of civilizations Mr. Khatami is born in this city.
Geography and climate:
Ardakan is located at 53 degrees and 48 minutes east, 32 degrees latitude and 20 minutes north. Ardakan is located on the Tehran route to Kerman and Bandar Abbas, which passes through the center of the city (the road to Santo or Dashebadi) and lies in the heart of the central desert of Iran. Location of the city is located in Yazd-Ardakan plain. In the western part of the township of the village of Aghda, in the southern part of the village of Mefod, in the eastern part of the village of Zarrin.
In terms of topography, the major part of the city is limited to an approximate line of 1500 meters. Only about 5% of the city’s area is mountainous and the city average height is 1234 meters. In the city limits, the tallest altitude of Mount Zuanza is 3158 meters high. The height of Ardakan is 1035 meters.
The altitudes in the city of Ardakan are as follows:
The Czech-Czech Mountain (height 2745): 38 km east of Ardakan (on the western slope of Zoroastrian shrine,
In the year of 1996 in the city of Ardakan, the urbanization rate was 79%, which is devoted to two cities of Ardakan and the newly established city of Ahmedabad (Ahmedabad city has about 4500 inhabitants). In Ardakan, in the year 75, there are 9472 ordinary households with a population of 43,708 and a sex ratio of 107 men per 100 women. This average is 4/104 at the country level. The city of Ardakan is the city’s first city in terms of population and size after the center of the province (Yazd city). The old town of Ardakan has about 1.8% of the city’s total population.
The cultural characteristics of the Ardakan people: The
people of Ardakan are hard-working, faithful, tolerant and pure, simple and indifferent, religious fanatics, and bound to mourn months in a matter of months. Fanaticism and special dependence on religion, perseverance and hard work, hospitality, saving, speculation, cooperation and co-operation, the spirit of work, the spirit of contentment and economy, the lack of risk and distrust of the climate and weather conditions … Somewhat affected by the particular climatic conditions of the region (desert climate, warm and dry).
The people of Ardakan are Aryan and Iranians, and they speak Farsi and Yazdi’s accent. Most people in the Muslim city and Shiite are parsley, and some Zoroastrians live in the area. Of the population of Ardakan, 99.6% are Muslim and 0.4% Zoroastrian, Christian, and others.
As it comes from sources and sources, Ardakan is located locally 10 kilometers north of Ardakan and now it is called Zardok, and in spite of the time passed, it is possible to see the ruins of residential houses, mosques, bazaar and castle and the old Ardakan Hosseinieh . The reason for the change in the location of the city are some of the fresh water flowing at the current site of Ardakan. From ancient historical texts such a large river extends from Zabulistan to Kerman and Yazd and near Nain, as well as dozens of seasonal rivers and surface waters from south to north, all of which could be the source of gathering people in the area. On the other hand, the gentle slope of the earth from the south to the north is suitable for the construction of the aqueduct, so the economic factor, or the water and land suitable for agriculture, has created this desert city. The first nucleus of the current Ardakan city was established since the eighth century AH, so that the neighborhoods around Qaleh Square and Charkhab neighborhood are considered the old and relatively secluded neighborhoods of this city. It is evident from the evidence that after the determination of the new Ardakan city, the first building was built at the site of the current castle. After a while, due to the massive population, there is a population of the Baladeh field in the south and the sub-mosque of this square. Then, alongside the mosque, they built a large market and four streets and baths.
The first time in the history of this city, the seventeenth century. AH is the name of Ardakan and the building of Sheikh Taqi al-Din Dada Mohammad of the elders and pathologists of the path of religion. After Sheikh Muhammad and his sons, Ardakan became a science, wisdom and literature, and from then on, the true meaning of the word “small Greece” came to Ardakan, and gave Ardakan the name more than enlightenment. During the Afshariyah period (1163 AD), Nadir Shah’s nephew, Ali Gholi Khan, rebelled against Shahrokh Shah Afshar and left for Khorasan. After passing the route to Ardakan’s vicinity, he was abducted and captured by Shahrokh-e-Shah armies and sent to Mashhad where he was killed. In the year 1207 AD Qat Lotf Ali Khan Zand, during his wars with Aqa Muhammad Khan Tabasi, provided a small army and headed to Shiraz. Near Yazd, Mohammad Taqi Khan Yazdi, led the way to Lotf Ali Khan. Lutfali Khan, with the tribal elders and the Tabasi army, defeated Yazdi Bazar in the Ardakan area and set off for Abarkuh. Throughout the Qajar era, the city of Ardakan and its surroundings, was considered as Yazd rule. In 1236 AD. The prince Mohammad Vali Mirza, the ruler of Yazd, sent Hajji Mirza Mohammad Khan Ghazvini to Ardakan and Meybod. After Qazvini, Mirzah Mehdi Gholi became Minister and then Mohammad Karim Khan, the Ardakan ruler.
Ardakan consists of two words, “Ord” and “Kahn”, which is “Ord”, meaning “holy” and “Kahn”, that is, mine, and with this combination of word Ardakan means the holy land, but in useful terms “Ord” A fraction of A means meaning and meaning because there are many mines around Ardakan, known to Ardakan people in this area.
Along with the Muslim invasion of Iran and the escape of Iranians from major cities of Khorasan to the center of Iran, they settled in Meybod, Yazd and other central regions of Iran. The people of Ardakan districts saw this site as suitable for agriculture, and they started construction of Qanats and ports of this city (Ardakan). Therefore, the Ardakan may have been Zoroastrians. In this case, the name Ardakan may be from the word (orthakan), which means that the Zoroastrian religion is one of the gods.
In the book,
in the book of Yazd, a letter was referred to Ardakan, from which the scholars and intellectuals of the time were Alayam (about the seventh century AD), which had small mosques, mosques, singers, mansions, gardens, biotati And the place of life of scholars and scholars, each of which has a delightful and soothing home in it. In the past, the northern half of Yazd is a large lake located from the Houz-e-Sultan area in the south of Ray to the north of the Yazd plain (Saveh Lake), which remains to be found today. The drying of this lake is considered by the Prophet Mohammad during the prophets, and three Diyah, Ajdah and Meybod were beside the sea, and the current location of the Ardakan town was under the waters of Saveh.
Ardakan industrial workshops can be used for mosaics, bricks, stones and some small industries. The most important mines in Ardakan and its surroundings are uranium, barium, iron, lead, zinc, gypsum and salt. The Ardakan Ardeh and Halvadeh Ardeh process is produced and exported from sesame oil in extracts and workshops of halvah. Ardakan are pelletizing factories, Arfa Steel, Ghadir Steel, Chador Malu Steel, Milano Tent Mine, Tile factories and a large Ardakan glass factory and a yellow cake factory for atomic energy and a 800 MW combined cycle plant is in operation. Meanwhile, the 4-star municipality garden hotel, the tourism guest house and the Kariz Ardakan hotel are also from the service centers. We are ready to provide information and cooperation.
Agriculture in Ardakan is not booming due to lack of adequate water. The important product of the city is pomegranate, rhinos, wheat, fruit, alfalfa, cotton and pistachio. Pistachio ardakan is considered to be the best quality Iranian pistachio. Due to Ardakan climate, livestock breeding is carried out sporadically and its main livestock is goat. However, sheep, cattle, and camels also hold and poultry are also common in this area.
Zardak region: which includes works of the fifth and sixth century monuments.
The mosque is the most comprehensive and mosque of the 10th century AH.
Haj Mohammad Hussein Mosque: related to the Qajar period.
Aqda mosque: which dates back to the 6th century AH.
Ardakan Museum of Anthropology: It has different sections of anthropology, antiquities, botany, zoology and culture.
Rabbit Robot: From the buildings of the Shah Abbas Safavi era.
Rabat Shahzadeh and the minaret of Khantagh: There are tourist attractions.
Pierre-Green Czech-Czech: Zoroastrian shrine, and attracts a large number of Zoroastrians every year in and out of the country.
The holy shrine is a Zoroastrian shrine.
Shagvat Yazdan Cave: Located 50 km from Aqda and has beautiful columns of Stoglugite and Stalaghtyite. The length of the cave is 15 kilometers.
From other historical works of Ardakan it is possible to mention the following:
Dvar water reservoir, Anbar Castle, Temple of Sharif Abad, Temple of Ahmad Abad, Pirsouz, Chaharsoog, Hoseinieh Bazaar, Kordhanah Ardakan, Tork Abad cemetery, Shrigh Abad cemetery, Pars Banoo shrine, Zoroastrian shrine of Sharifabad, Seminary school, Mosque of Kocheb, and Turk Turk tribe.
Historical Properties of Ardakan:
Historic texture of Ardakan is one of the most healthy old textures in Iran, and has been largely protected from the events of the day due to its geographical location. This texture has the full features of desert towns and has some unique features. Beautiful gravel, suitable gates, rafting buildings, numerous water reservoirs, narrow streets, cozy neighborhoods, exclusive monuments and mosques are the great features of this historical texture.
Historical texture of Ardakan is due to its desert area, with its adobe and mud buildings. Desertification, lack of natural occurrence, remoteness from the geographical boundaries of the country and non-exposure to foreign invasions have caused, despite the passage of time, the texture The historic Ardakan remains untouched until recently. With the coming of Reza Khan along with his so-called national security policy, tissue destruction has begun and continues to this day, but still the remaining part, which is considered to be the most beautiful part of the texture, remains undisturbed and healthy. Fortunately, preventive measures have been effective over the past few years and in some cases not only prevented the destruction of tissue, but restoration and restoration has brought about resuscitation and prosperity.
The way and the formation of the old texture:
From the existing works it seems that the construction of the old Ardakan texture has been carried out in at least three stages, and the main part, which is the central and the primary part of the texture, is located in the area known today for the castle. In fact, the main castle or the first building in Ardakan This area is unknown and its exact history is unknown, but the existing works indicate that the castle was at least in the 6th century AH. Then the upper and lower neighborhoods were added to it, and the initial range of Ardakan was from the sub area in the north, the Baladeh field in the south, the Rabat and the water in the Rabat storage in the east, but the west is not well defined, the length of the area is approximately 450 meters and the width It was about 250 meters long.
This small area has two beautiful and magnificent mosques. Jame Mosque in the south and mosque under ten in the north and between Qaleh square and the mosque is exactly equal to the distance from the mosque below 10 to the castle square, in this small part of the school with a vast expanse of women and men, the market, water storage and Rabat also existed.
The first fence of the
fence and the first ditch disappeared altogether, and by the early part of the century there was still a small part of the ditch on the south-east side near the top ten, which unfortunately turned into a shop.
The second fence for the
development of the old texture was more closely related to the East in the following years, and the houses of the Ilkhanid era in the east of Ardakan indicate the fact that in the seventh century, the area was part of the tissue, and its boundary in the north to the vicinity of Husayniyya Kushkonu and in the south to the proximity Husseinayeh has a new market and its length and width are not clear.
The third fence, the third
fence, which is actually the last fence and baroque of the old Ardakan texture, is a development on four sides: because of the north and south of the Kushnkou and the new markets, we added to the texture and in the east of the neighborhoods of Zayn al-Din and Tiran and west of the neighborhoods of Charkhab and Amiri Textures have been added. Explaining that the Saif castle and the Saif gateway were also built on the south and southwest sides. In this development, the length of the texture reached 850 meters and the width reached 6500 meters. The exact date of this development is not clear, but evidence shows that it was in the 10th century.
one of the features of the old Ardakan texture. It has a long, beautiful gravel. It has a length of more than three thousand meters, all the places inside the fabric. The height of the wall is 7 to 8 meters, its thickness is at the bottom and 1.5 at the highest point. It is 20 to 30 centimeters long, with over 50 towers built to protect and guard.
The materials used in general were mud and mud and in some cases used at the tops of several rows of jibs. The upper part of the baroque was made of wrought iron and mud, which gives it a special beauty, and at the congresses there are shooting guns for shooting and numerous pouring pans Molybdenum, molybdenum, etc., to protect the barrow in the south of the fence was shorter than the second one, and in some parts there were single towers connected by a wooden bridge to the barrow, which is used for surveillance purposes Has been.
The ditch was dug
up to a width of 7 to 10 meters and a depth of 2 to 3 meters, which, when in danger of danger, was filled with garnet water. The extinction of this rain began in the early part of the century and now only the part Little is left of the great rain that has been restored in recent years by a number of its towers.
for entering the city were in fact overpassed by the gates around them, which had suitable protective facilities.
Both have two tall towers on both sides that are taller than the buildings around Baru. The two towers were connected to each other by the gate, and at the top of the towers there was a room where shooters and guards used the gates of Shahrastan.
Both of them have a wooden doorway that has been handled by guards who have been known to the gatekeepers.
The goalkeepers usually stayed in a small room in the middle of the gate and usually went to the main gate early in the morning and closed it after sunset, and if anyone was not at the gate in the wrong hour, he did not have the right to enter or leave the gate.
At the same time, there was a water storage tank at the small mosque that could use it when it was leaving and entering the gate.
At times when the city is attacked, the gates of the city are closed and, in order to prevent the enemy from opening them, at the back of the door they accumulated hills from the soil and took one or two doors to the entrance and exit, and only the gate of the mortar had a harvest The tower was the gate in the middle of the tower.
The main gates of Ardakan are: Kushnook Gate, Ali Bayk Gate and Amiri Gate in the north, Gate of the New Market and the Gate of Mirasal in the south, and the Gate of the Akhund and Khaloost of the time in the east and the gate of Saif in the west and in the southeast also at the time It did not threaten the city, it was a small gate that was famous for the gates.
Water supply sources
The drinking water inside the fence was provided by water through the water supply. Non-drinking water was also provided by the four strata of the aqueduct, which was pulled from the south and transported through the length of 850 meters of tissue from the north. .
This growth of the Qanats passed through the houses and public places of the city, and the people were getting into it by digging out the word, called the Jokes, in the local term.
The channel of the Qnats has been somewhat direct. Places and houses around the Qanats have also deviated part of the water to their homes by digging the diversion channels, which in the local term is directed to the Qanats and its diversion and deviation path The other four parts of the aqueduct, which flowed through the tissue, were the Shawab, Moretin and Baha’addin Abad aqueducts in the basement, but the Indigenous Qnat flowing at the surface of the earth was inserted into the gates of the market and afterwards Crossing the market length out of the gates of Kushno and due to the passage of this aqueduct from the market and other places It is considered that the date of history (the name of Ardakan Zain Water), which is based on the letters of Abuja, is 1040 Lunar years, which is the year of the construction of Ali Abad Neyli Qnat.
The economic centers are the
largest economic center of the city of the great market and four well-known and well-known southern-northeast stretches along the length of 750 meters. The history of the construction of this market is not known, but the beneficial owner of Mofidi (p. 3, p. 726) who wrote his book in 1085, referred to this market and the four rivers and Nileh Qanat.
In the place of four leaps, there were two small markets in the west and one in the east, one on the gate of the Akhund and the other leading to the gate of Saif. Inside the market, in addition to several shops, there are several tributaries or businesses, and in each neighborhood there was a small marketplace supplying the needs of local residents.
At each stage, there are small or large Hosseiniyahs, which in the local terms they were called, although in the month of Muharram, these husseiniyahs were used for mourning, but during the year they often became centers of commerce, because These fields were located near the gates of the city and the firewood, charcoal and other items that could not be sold inside the store were bought and sold in these fields. The most popular fields of Ardakan were: Husain (Square), Baslerarno Near the gate of the new market, Kushkonu Square near the Kushkonu gate, Ali field near the gate of Seif, Mead The Mirsaleh Baladeh near the gate, the gate Zinedine near Akhund, the Alibeik near the gate Alibeik. Even far away, there were also shops that used them as workshops of Zayalobah, Lababaq and Salaqi.
caravansaries were also considered to be shopping centers and caravans, and most of them were located near commercial centers. Hadrati, Gudalg and Kushkonu’s caravansaries were located on the North-South market, and the Ali Field Caravanserai along the east-west market and Ali-Caravansary Bike is located near Ali Beyk Square and local market.
During the Qajar period, the Sultan’s caravanserai at the gate of Saif and the other caravanserai along the Gateway of Baznuv and Ali Bik Caravanserai were built outside the gate of Ali Bik, the three caravanserai clinging to the fence of the city, but their entrance was outside the gate.
Rabat Shah Abbasi, which was built on the Yazd road to Isfahan, was about 200 meters away from the Gorno-Gorod.
The baths are fairly large inside the tissues, and the women’s and men’s parts are separated and closely spaced. The oldest bath in the tissue is the market bathroom, which fortunately is still healthy and used.
Other baths in the tissue are Hajj-Molhasan baths and Charkhab bath in Charkhab neighborhood, Kushkonu bath in Kushkonu district, Hamil-Taleb in Zaynaddin neighborhood and the market bath near the mosque and the east-west market. Interestingly, all of them were located almost on the western side of the old texture.
WATER WAREHOUSES WATER WAREHOUSES
ARE HOW TO SUPPLY DRINKING WATER INSIDE AND OUTSIDE ANTI-TEXTURE, AND THEY ARE ALWAYS BASED ON BEHAVIOR BY A NON-BASED NATURAL HOLDER, AND AWAKTWATH FOR DROPPING AND REPAIR. In addition to supplying drinking water to people, these water cabinets often have a kettle of water, which they used to wash and refresh ablutions, and on top of them there were also small mosques for prayer or resting places. The use of water was generally free of charge, and all water storage facilities have been trapped in the streams of water from Sadr Abad aqueduct and gardens.
Ardakan water basins often have three unidirectional windings, which in this regard have a unique state of their own, which is not anywhere in Iran like them. Also, the adobe and dome roofs of the water reservoirs and their beautiful brick staircases are considered the architectural symbol of Ardakan.
Most water storage in the old tissue is still healthy and can be used when water is cut off.
The mosque is one
of the most interesting points found in ancient Ardakan texture. There are numerous and very large mosques, which despite the development of Ardakan in recent years, is still a comprehensive mosque inside the texture of the largest Ardakan mosque, which reflects the size of its creators.
The large mosques inside the texture have two parts of the summer and winter “Shabestan and Domeh”. Apart from Haj Mohammad Hussein’s mosque, most of them are made of mud and mud. The history of the oldest building is unknown, but the works in the mosque are comprehensive and comprehensive. Late 10th century AH. Other mosques in the tissue include Hajj Sadaj Mosque and Hajji Rajabali Mosque in Charkhab neighborhood, Zayn al-Din Mosque in Zayn al-Din neighborhood, Haj Mohammad Hussein Mosque, near the big city market, Kushkonu Mosque in Kushkonu district.
In addition to the large mosques, there are a number of small mosques in different places, some of which are as follows: Date palm mosque, Square mosque, Reading house mosque, Khatami alley mosque, Hajj mohammad Reza mosque, Tir’al mosque, mosque Husaynayyah New Market … The
In general, large grinding mills in the Ardakan region were rotated by the water of the aqueduct, which is why most of them were outside the tissue. Only one blue mill that worked with Morethan Aquarium was in the name of a “grinding mill” inside the texture, and there were also a handful of handles or hand grenades in the homes of people used to blubber wheat and barley.
is another feature of the ancient Ardakan texture. Each prisoner belonged to certain people who had several houses due to their financial strength and political influence, which was opened at the entrance to these houses inside the prison. At the beginning of the dormitory there were relatively large niches, and the houses inside the hospital were more secure, mostly in Ardakan, belonging to the early Qajar period, and located in the Charkhab neighborhood. The most famous of them are: Darband Sadr al-Fizla, Darband Majd al-Alma, Darband Hajj Mullah Taghi, Darband Sultan, Senate and …
turbine is considered as the main source of cooling air in the old texture. Therefore, it can be said that all houses have one or more windings, the number of wind turbines depends on the area of the room or the queues that the windpipe has led to. The Ardakan winders are one-way and their mouths are to the north, and the wind that flows from the other side is known to the north. The winders are mostly mud and mud. At the top, the springs are embedded, and the ceilings of the springs are often considered to be steep so that the wind can be better guided into the winding.
The windpipe room, although more in the southern part of the house, but in some houses there were rooms in the north of the house that had a wind turbine.
The number of winding springs, although based on a local tradition, is in most of the large wind turbines, indicating the width of the room or room. The height of the windmill is very balanced and in harmony with the surrounding buildings, as in the sketch of the old Ardakan texture, there was not a disparate and disproportionate building, but in recent years, the structures inside the texture interrupted the balance and could be either a viewer or a view. See this inconsistency.
The constructional features
of the old fabric were made with mud and mud, and in addition to reducing the need for transportation of materials, there were also other important advantages, the most important of which was to prevent the penetration of cold and heat into the building. It was also used to make clay from the floor of the courtyard, as a result, the courtyard of the house was swept away from the rest of the areas, which causes the moisture inside the rooms and the logs around the courtyard to be transmitted through the brick walls into the living space, and the walls and floor of the rooms It is free of moisture.
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