Dar Al Fonoun School
The historic attractions of Tehran and the oldest school founded in Tehran is the Dar Al-Fonoun School, one of the oldest modern educational foundations in Iran Travel Agency, which was reopened by Mirzatagi Khan Farahani (Amir Kabir) in 1231 solar year (1851 AD – 1268 AH) .
Mirzateqi Khan traveled to Russia in 1244 AH, when he was only 22 years old, with a group headed by Khosrowmizza to apologize for the killing of Grybaydov, a Russian laborer in Iran, where he saw modern schools, Russian factories and foundations of science and technology . Also, in 1259 AH, the head of the Iranian group was in the meeting of Arseneh-Al-Rumi on the Ottoman soil, and during the three years that he was there, he met with the new Ottoman schools, and even asked for the first Iranian interpreter, John Dawood Khan, to publish several well-known historical, geographical and political books Which he had chosen, was returned in Persian. The study of these books, in turn, added to the knowledge of Amir Kabir from the scientific foundations of the West. After Mirzataki Khan was elected to Iran’s Chancellery, instead of expanding the city and raising palaces and towers, he tried to establish the Dar Al Fonoun.
The building of the Darolfonun Educational Foundation began with the architecture of Miyazarah-e-Mangasabashi in the part of the royal citadel and the surrounding land, and its construction began in 1266 AH and ended in 1232 solar year. On the four sides of the Dar Al Fonoun, 50 rooms of the same size (4 × 4 meters in size) were made and portions of the walls were decorated with stucco and beautiful designs. In front of the rooms, the porch was located and built a pond between the courtyards and planted around the trees and grass.
In 1267 AH, John Davood Khan, the first interpreter of the Iranian government, was sent to the Austrian court to serve as a teacher. Amir Kabir called on 6 professors in military affairs and related affairs to hire for 6 years, with an annual salary of no more than 4,400 tomans, and, of course, the cost of returning them to the Iranian government. After a while, he ordered a professor who could teach physics and chemistry and teach pharmacies to students, and two miners who are capable of mining, whose annual salary of nine people totaled $ 5,000. At that time, Francois Joseph was an emperor of Austria and Hungary, and warmly welcomed John Davood Khan, and he was able to win 7 Austrian professors at the service of the Iranian government. With each of the separate professors, the contract was closed, with the third and fourth articles worthy of attention.
Unfortunately, when Austrian teachers arrived in Tehran, Amir Kabir was dismissed and Mirza Aqa Khan was appointed to replace him. Mirza Agha Khan accepted the cold and unpardonable teachers, and this coldness of Iranian behavior was written by Dr. Pollock in his memoirs. Meanwhile, Colonel Shill, who until 1232 was the minister of the British Minister of the Interior in Iran, prompted Trust Dudwell to return Austrian professors to the fore and recruit English professors. Although Mirza Aqa Khan Nuri agreed to this, Naser-al-Din Shah was not loaded and honored John Davood Khan, who provided the groundwork for the Austrian masters to Iran, for the brigade of the brigade.
Eventually, the center was selected on Sunday 5th of Rabiallah in 1268 AH (1,231 solar) and 13 days after Mirzataghi Khan Farahani was killed, with seven Austrian teachers and several translators sent to France from graduates. Worked.
The professors who came to Iran were:
* Dr. Edward Jacob Pollack; He is the first physician and modern surgeon to serve the Iranian government and was a professor of medicine at the Academy of Medicine.
* Captain Zaty was the engineer of the system and professor of geometry. But as she came to school, Mirza Malkum Khan taught geometry instead. Zaati died in 1269 AH in Iran following a cholera outbreak in Iran and buried him at the Armenian Church in the Gateway neighborhood. Abdul Rasul Khan, one of the best graduates of the Dar Al Fonoun, was his interpreter.
* Khorasch came to Darulfonon as a master of artillery but he also taught the disciplines because of history, geography, calculus and geometry. He wrote or translated many books with the help of his students.
* Charlotta was a professor of mineralogy and studied Alborz mines and traveled to Mazandaran. He died in 1269 AH in the wake of the epidemic of cholera. First, Mirzazar Kashani, who had gone to Europe at the time of Mohammad Shah, and then Mirza, Mr. Tabrizi, was his interpreter.
* Fukati taught chemistry and pharmacy. Mirza Kazem was the famous mosque known as Muhammad Kazem Khan Chemistry, the most prominent graduate who was the founder of modern chemistry in Iran. Mizarzara Taki was his interpreter.
* Do not, he was a master of cavalry and military methods, and he stayed in Persia, like Khorashi, after the end of his contract. Andrea (an Austrian tailor), who had come to Iran before him, was his interpreter. In the course of surgery, he collaborated with Dr. Pollock and anesthetized patients with ether.
* Captain Gomez; Infantry and military techniques and Amir Kabir’s advisor in reforming the system. He came to Iran for two years, but resigned a few months before the end of the 1269 AH and left Iran.
The choice of Austrian teachers was due to the fact that Amir Kabir believed that foreign teachers should avoid interfering in the political work of the country and only taught teaching, which is why they avoided the employment of Russian, English and French teachers (although in 1273 AH, several professors The French were named after Messi Benazak, Messi Petti, Messi Nicola, Messiyosh and Dr. Taluzan, and added to the Academy of Sciences.
On the day of the opening of the school, Nasser al-Din Shah came to school before the hunt, and a grand celebration was held in front of the king, courtiers and foreign and Iranian professors. The first lesson that took place on the same day was the practice of infantry, and then the training of other disciplines also began.
The Dar Al-Fonoun initially had 100 students from the children of the Qajar elders, the rich and the government’s affiliates, but at the very beginning of the work, close to 50 others were added to the Dar al-Fonoun students, and the number of them, most of them aged 14 to 16, was up to 150 Receipt. The training period for students was 6-7 years.
The academy was not called from the beginning. The official letters of the Amir Kabir center were named after the school, the new school, the school of the kingdom and the kingdom of the kingdom, and the name of the royal kingdom was used more. In the 1267 Hizmeth of Haghighi newspaper, there are also educational and teaching names. The name of the Dar al-Fonoun began after the foundation of the Educational Foundation, and it seems that for the first time, Foreign Minister Mohammad Ali Khan has used it in letters to some statesmen to elect Dar al-Fonoun students. In the Utopia Weekly, the first time has been used in the third zero of 1268.
The Academy of Sciences was under the supervision of Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan, the secretary of state, until the Ministry of Science began its work. Aziz Khan, the general director, was the first director of the Academy of Sciences, and this post came to Mohammad Khan Amirtouman after him. The head of this educational foundation (which can be called the first modern Iranian university), was transferred to Aligholi Mirza in 1237, Etemad al-Saltanah, who became the first Iranian minister of science in the year 1240. After a brief period of management, Aziz Khan, Rezaghli Khan Hedayat, under the supervision of the Minister of Science, was transferred to the Dar Al Fonoun Department until 1279, and he carried out important work in progress. There are so many books left by Reza Khan Khan. After him, his two sons, Aligli Khan (Mokhbaralddoleh) and Jafarqoli Khan (Nir al-Malik) went to the Dar Al-Fonoun office. The center was slightly expanded in the year 1266 by the effort of Nir al-Malik, and several rooms and a large hall were added to it.
Dar Al-Fonoun was always one of the organizations under the jurisdiction of the court, and its directors and professors were appointed by the order of the chancellor and command of Nasser-al-Din Shah, and the budget was paid from the royal treasury. The Dar Al-Fonoun’s budget was $ 7,550 in the year and $ 30,000 in 1307 AH. But because the royal treasury sometimes fell sharply and financially inadequate, and school fees were difficult to pay, Eidad al-Saltanah (the science scientist) decided to find a steady income for the school, so the king Desiring to assign Malayer’s tax to the Dar Al Fonoun. This request was accepted, and this led to a boom in the pre-school year. Al-Saltanah was constantly visiting the academy, and other important things were done in order to boost Dar al-Fonoun, including increasing the number of training days. By the year 1240, the Solar Era of the Dar al-Fonoun had been closed for days of mourning, mourning days, Mondays and Fridays every week, and the days of Ramadan, and were not open for more than 180 days during the year. In this context, the revenge of the Redeemer limited the closing of Mondays and other holidays, thus the working days of the Dar al-Fonoun increased by more than 200 days after the deduction of the summer holidays and the days of the Nowruz celebrations.
The main employees of the Academy were Colonel Ajdun, Colonel Tavaviladar, Observer, Librarian, Mostofi, Accountant, Head of the Book (Specialist), Special Tailor, Knitting, Najarbashi, and Several Tradesmen.
Since 1272 AD, a journalist was added to the magazine, which wrote and maintained all the important daily events of the school. In those offices, which at the moment are some of them are kept at the National Library, teachers ‘attendance, lessons learned, students’ absence, fines, clashes, visits of celebrities, and whatever seemed to matter to the school administrators. Also, according to Nasir al-Din Shah’s decree, many reports were made on how students progressed each year and published in the Journal of the Events.
In the northeastern corner of the school, they had a large auditorium to display plays by Monsieur Lumer (music master) and Mirza Ali Akbar Khan Piashabashi (Mizin Dawlah). Mizinuddowl translated Persian theoretical musical lessons written by Lumer in Farsi and published the first theoretical musical theater in the form of a question and answer in two French and Persian languages and published in 1301 in the Dar Al Fonoun Printing House.
In addition to the print shop, Dar Al Fonoun also had a good photographer.
The students of each of the Darul-Fonoun teaching fields had a special coverage of which their field of study was known. She received two summer and winter uniforms and monthly allowances.
At the Academy of Sciences, three times a year, the students were awarded the highest rank in the school tests, and the professors who tried to train them in the presence of the King had royal insignia and their monthly salary increased. Instead, the professors and students were camped, arrested, and sometimes expelled.
In order for all those who studied in a field to be at an educational level and some do not retreat from others due to lack of subtlety or mentality, they instructed students who had more abilities and skills to learn lessons learned or learned lessons. They would have been rewarded if they were struggling to advance the disciples who were entrusted to them, and if they faltered, they would be punished.
In fact, these graduates of Dar al-Fonoun played a significant role in transforming the survivors of Iranian civilization, the spread of knowledge in Iran, as well as in the constitutional revolution.
One of the valuable works done by the Dar Al Fonon Graduates was the construction of a telegraph transmitter, with the help of his students, by Messi Karshish (a teacher of artillery and mathematics), and a start to expand telecommunications in Iran.
80 years after the beginning of the Dar al-Fonoun, in 1308, the Ministry of Culture’s Solomon asked the Russian Markov Engineer to reconstruct the Darul-Fonon.Markov restored the Dar Al Fonon based on a mixture of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Safavid times, and, except for a few limited parts such as the courtyard, waterfront and porch of the northern courtyard, transformed all sections. From then on, this became one of the leading and well-known high schools in Tehran. After the revolution, the education changed the use of Darulfonon from high school to Teacher Training, Dormitory, and In-Service Training Center, and in 1375 it was closed by the Soldier and was established in 1378 as the seat of Iranian education documents.
The Academy of Sciences, Treasury and Documentation Center for Education, is a subsidiary of the Research Institute of Education and has started its cultural and research work.
Collecting and maintaining the education documents of Iran over the past 150 years, listing the articles and reports that have been published around the Dar al-Fonoun in the periodicals of the Qajar period, arranging and publishing the biographies of the scholars of the Dar al-Fonoon, and holding conferences and lectures on the Dar al-Fonoun and its place in contemporary Iranian history. One of the most important works of today’s academics.
Darul Fonoun was registered on July 25, 1988 in the national monuments list.
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