The historical and ancient monuments of Persepolis are near the city of Marvdasht and about 60 km north-east of Shiraz.
The Greeks called it Persepolis, and in ancient Iran Travel Agency it was said to Parsehr and forty menar. Parsse or Persepolis is one of the ancient cities of Iran that has been the capital of the Achaemenid for many years. Macedonian Alexander the Greek commander invaded Iran and set fire to this place.
But the ruins of this place are still there. This place is now one of the world’s largest registered works in UNESCO.
Persepolis is a collection of magnificent palaces built in 512 BC and completed 150 years.
Persepolis is located in a large area on the one hand to the Mount of Mercy and on the other hand is limited to Marvdasht. These royal palaces are built alongside Parsian town, which the Greeks have called Persepolis.
The building of Persepolis began at the time of Darius I about 518 BC. First, they prepared a tall hill and built the Apadana Hall and the main stairs and Tachra Palace.
After Darius, his son Xerxes built another hall called the Hadish Hall, and poured out the construction of the hall of one hundred pillars. Ardeshir first finished the hall of a hundred pillars. Ardeshir III started another building that was unfinished. These buildings are built on basements, some of which are massive and integrated rocks or are shaved in the mountains.
The Achaemenid architecture is a combination of art that has been adapted from the architectural style of Babylonia, Assyria and Egypt, and the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the Urartu, and has created an independent form of architecture with the art and spirit of the Iranian soul. By building this huge building, the Achaemenids wanted to show the greatness of their great kingdom to the world.
At the end of 1312, a shaft was excavated in the northwest corner of the sofa of Persepolis, about 40,000 plain flowers were cut in the shape of the seals of prayer. On these tablets, words were written in the Elamite line. After reading, it turned out that these Elamite tablets are the cost of building the palaces of Persepolis. Some of the tablets are in Persian and the Elamite line. From the discovery of these tablets, the ideas that stated that the palaces of Persepolis, such as the Pyramids of Egypt, were built up by oppression and sacrifice.
Because these Elamite documents say that they paid all the workers of these beautiful palaces, including the carpenter, the carpenter, the builder, the architect and the engineer, and each of these tablets was worth one or more people.
Workers who were involved in the construction of Persepolis were from different nations such as Iran and Babylonia, and Egyptians and Greeks, and Elamites and Assyrians, all of whom were the rulers of the Iranian monarchy.
Based on the clay of writings discovered at Persepolis, this magnificent building was attended by architects, artists, professors, workers, men and women who, in addition to receiving salary, also used the benefits of labor insurance. The construction of this great and beautiful complex lasted for 120 years.
Alexander of Macedonia set fire to Persepolis in his invasion of Iran in 331 BC. Historians do not vote for the cause of this fire. Some see it as a result of an unintentional incident, but some of the insolence and revenge of Alexander in retaliation for the destruction of the city of Athens by Khashayar Shah considered the real cause of this horrific fire.
The total area of the Palace of Persepolis is 125 thousand square meters and is constructed on a platform whose height ranges from 8 to 18 meters above the level of the plain, and is composed of the following important sections:
Official Palace and ceremonial tower of Persepolis (Palace of the Gate of Nations).
Living Shelters and Private Small Chambers of the
Fortress and Protection
Rainforest Entrance Stairs and Xerxes Gate
The entrance to the platform is two staircases facing each other and in the northwest section of the set, which is like a hand bending its elbow and aiming to lift its enthusiasts from the ground and place them in their chests.
The stairs from each side have 111 wide and short stairs (up to 10 cm high). Contrary to the belief of many historians who claimed that the low altitude of the stairs was due to the fact that the horses could also climb the stairs, they made the stairs shorter than usual to keep guests comfortable and comfortable.
On the stairs, the entrance to the Persepolis, “[the Great Gate],” or “[Xerxes Gates, Xerxes Gates]” or the Gates of Nations. The height of this building is 10 meters. This building has a main entrance and two exits, which today are the remains of its gates.
The western and eastern gate of the winged men’s pattern is carved out with the design of two cow stones with human heads. These gates are decorated in the upper part with six inscriptions. These inscriptions, after naming the name of Ahuramazda, briefly state: “Everything that is beautiful is done by Omarzad.”
The two exit gates are one facing south and the other facing east, and has a south gate facing the Apadana Palace, or the Grand Palace.
The apadana palace in the north and east has two staircase sets. The eastern stairs of this palace, consisting of two stairs – one facing the north and one facing the south, have carved sculptures on their side walls. The northwest staircase has roles of high-ranking military and paramilitary commanders, while lily-flowered flowers are carved.
In front of the military commanders, the Immortal Guards are seen paying tribute. In the upper row of this wall, the role of people is seen while bringing gifts to the palace.
On the wall of the stairs to the south, there are pictures of delegates from different countries with their gifts. Each section of this carvings is dedicated to one of the nations.
Apadana Palace is one of the oldest palaces in Persepolis. The palace, built by Darius the Great, was used to hold New Year celebrations and to welcome the representatives of the kingdoms.
The palace is linked by a staircase in the southwest to the “Tachra Palace” or “Mirror Palace”. The Apadana Palace is made up of 72 columns, with its current 14 columns standing on the courtyards of the courtyard of the Rounded House but with columns inside the square palace.
The Tucker or Tachra Palace means the winter home. The palace was also built under the command of Dariush Kabir and was his own palace. On the inscription: “I made Darius the tocher.”
The palace is a museum of the ancient Ancient Persia in this inscription palace, with the Pahlavi lines above the columns being used in front of the Egyptian front. The main part of the palace is built by Darius the Great and Avon and the southern stone staircase by Kheshayar Shah and the western stone staircase by Ardeshir II.
The Palace of Hadish, the private palace of Xerxes, is located in the highest part of the Persepolis. The palace is connected to the Queen’s Palace through two sets of stairs.
It is likely that a fire came from this place because of the hatred of the Athenians from the Xerxes because of the burning of Athens in his hand. The yellow color of the rocks indicates that the water inside the rocks is completely overheated due to the heat.
This is a small place here, 6 * 6 columns. There is not much information about this palace because of the devastating destruction that many have here called the mysterious palace.
Hadish means a long place, and since Kheshayar Shah, the name of his second wife, has his head, he names his palace as his palace. This palace is located in the southern part of the foam, and there are many parts of the floor of the mountain itself.
The Queen’s Palace was built by Xerxes, and is located at a lower altitude than other buildings.
Part of the palace was excavated and renovated in 1931 by renowned Orientalist Professor Ernest Emil Hertzfeld, and today it has been used as the museum and the central office of the Persepolis facility.
Imperial Treasury Building
The building, which consists of several halls, rooms and courtyards, is separated by a huge wall from the rest of Persepolis.
The palace is about 46,000 square meters in size, with a ceiling of 100 pillars, each 14 meters high.
The council palace is called the council
palace or central hall. Probably the king is here to discuss with elders. According to the carved sculptures, one of the gates of the king came in and came out of two other gates.
Because of this, the Council House here says that here there are two sides of a human pillar that are not elsewhere and that human beings are the symbol of thought.
The palace complexes of Persepolis, burned down by the year BC (330 BC), were destroyed by Alexander the Great, and all its buildings were ruined.
Remains of the remains and the half-ruin is the main building of Persepolis which is known as the Apadana Palace. It consists of a central hall with 36 columns and three columns of columns of 12 columns in the northern, southern, and eastern portions with its porch of the northern and eastern portions of the stairs Connected to the opposite courtyards.
The height of the Safavah at the Apadana Palace is 16 meters high and its columns are 18 meters high. This collection is on the list of Iranian monuments and also in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Architectural arts of Persepolis
One of the architectural arts in Persepolis is that the ratio of the height of the doors to their width and the ratio of the height of the columns to the distance between the two columns is the golden ratio.
The golden ratio is an important aspect in geometry that exists in nature. It represents the art of ancient heavenly people in architecture.
From what remained of Persepolis today, one can only imagine a vague image of the majesty of palaces in mind. However, it is possible to understand the importance and magnitude of these palaces through a historical map detailing the architecture of the palace buildings, and little of the imagination.
Persepolis has a thermal and ventilation system, which has warmed its interior in the warmer months and cools and mildly in the summer. The lush green plain of Marvdasht, the tall ceilings and spacious spaces, wide open doors and windows open the atmosphere of the Persepolis bed in the mild and cool summer, and in the winter, the walls of the adobe and the layers of plaster, forming a thermal insulation, are long and thick purple curtains It prevents the penetration of cold into the spaces and tallars, the roof covering is also wooden, which has had a significant impact on the warming of the environment.
Persepolis also has a water and sewage system, in Persepolis, the underground water supply and sewage system was discovered in twisted screw that reaches over 2 kilograms.
Persepolis is neither a city nor a fortress, nor a temple, Persepolis has two distinct, but somewhat interconnected roles. Firstly, because it was located at the heart of the empire, treasure was a good home for the accumulation of wealth of the country. Second, it was a great place to celebrate the ceremonies and celebrations that were held at that time (celebrations of the Mehregan and the festivals of Nowruz). According to historians in Persepolis, more than 120,000 gold and silver coins, dishes and very sculptures, furnishings Expensive, golden couches, precious purple cloths, and so on. It was kept that eventually attacked Alexandria Macedonian All the objects or looted or burned out.
When Alexander entered the Persepolis and saw all this glory and wealth, he ordered everything that he could take with him and everything that could not be destroyed.
Persepolis was neither a city nor a fortress, a glorious place to hold a great ceremony in which the king of Iran attended the ceremony with the heads of state and representatives of 28 countries.
The main design of the Persepolis building was cast during the reign of Darius the Great. From the very beginning, the number and location of the palaces, mansions and separate uses of each were determined and identified.
Three types of major building materials (wood, bricks, and local limestone) were used to build this building. The wood that was made locally was not compatible with the taste and taste of designers and architects, and they could not carry wood in the palaces of Persepolis from far away. For example, the beams below the cedar tree were only found in Lebanon at that time.
The mud bricks used to make walls and ceiling coverings that did not last a long time. The clay was washed by rain and crashed with earthquakes. The mountains of mercy for Sangrishan and the architects of Jamshid were suitable in any way.
These limestone stones are very hard and have different natural colors of white, amber, smoked and black, well shaved. In particular, its black color is marble-shaped. Many pieces of rocks are connected by iron sockets called swallowtails.
Mortar is not used in rocks. Glazed the walls with glazed bricks and flooring. On the doors was decorated with pieces of gold. Large colored curtains add to the beauty of the inside and outside of the palaces. The exquisite carpets of the floor painted their eyes.
It was virtually impossible for the Persepolis to be completed during the reign of Darius the Great. The construction of this huge building continued during the reign of his son Kheshayar Shah and his grandson, Ardeshir I. The construction of the building took about 200 years.
The Achaemenids inspired Persepolis to build diverse sources. The Persians were acquainted with at least two rich cultures, Oratou in the north, and Ilam in the south, and used them to shed a solid foundation in architectural art.
The Achaemenids met in Egypt, Babylonia, Lady and Europe in battle with other architectural ideas and, by gaining a wealth of wealth, used artists and stonecutters and outstanding architects to expand and decorate the Persepolis.
A point that is hardly unbelievable is the fact that this vast and valuable collection was buried under the soil for thousands of years until it was discovered in the late 1310s.
What looks at the viewer at first sight in Persepolis is the inscriptions and inscriptions of the Xerxes passage written in the language of Elamite and other ancient languages. From this pass, we arrive at the Apadana palace complex, where the kings were bombed and the state ceremonies and ceremonies were held there.
Major quantities of gold and jewelry have existed in these palaces, which obviously has been plundered during the invasion of Alexander.
A limited number of these jewels are held at the National Museum of Iran. The largest palace in the Persepolis complex is the palace known as the “Hundred Columns”, which is probably one of the greatest architectural effects of the Achaemenid period, and Darius I used it as its saloon.